Greek History Timeline
- 508 B.C. Kleisthenes begins reforming Athenian code of laws, and establishes a democratic constitution
- 497 B.C. Persian Wars begin
- 490 B.C. Athenians defeat Darius and his Persian Army at the Battle of Marathon
- Greek Historian Herodotus, known as the “Father of History”, is born
- 480 B.C. Xerxes marches on Greece
- Battle of Thermopylae
- Persians burn the Acropolis
- Athens defeated Persians fleet at naval battle of Salamis
- 479 B.C. Greeks defeat the Persian army at the Battle of Plateae
- 461 B.C. First Peloponnesian Wars begin
- last until 445 B.C.
- 446 B.C. Thirty- year peace treaty between Athens and Sparta end first Peloponnesian War
- 431 B.C. Second Peloponnesian Wars begins
- 430 B.C. Plague in Athens
- 427 B.C. Plato, Greek philosopher is born
- 421 B.C. Peace of Nicias
- 420 B.C. Construction of Temple of Athena Nike begins
- ends in 410 B.C.
- 418 B.C. Athenians resume war (Spartans defeat Athens at Mantinea)
- 413 B.C. Syracuse defeats Athens
- 404 B.C Athens surrenders to Sparta and is ruled by 30 Tyrants
- 403 B.C. Democracy restored in Athens
- 338 B.C. Macedonian army defeats Athens
- 336 B.C. Alexander the Great becomes King of Macedonia
- 334 – 326 B.C. The armies of Alexander invade Asia and conquer from Egypt to India, establishing the Alexandrian Empire
- 323 B.C Alexander the Great dies
- 279 B.C. Invasion of Greece by Gauls
- 238 B.C. Gauls defeated by King Attalus I
- 214 – 204 B.C. First Macedonian War
- Rome defeats Philip V of Macedon
- 200 – 196 B.C. Second Macedonian War
- Victory of Flamininus at Cynoscephalae
- 172 – 167 B.C. Third Macedonian War
- Macedonia divided into 4 republics
- 146 B.C. Rome invades Greece and rules from then on
- 31 B.C. Battle of Aktion
- 30 B.C. End of “Ancient Greece” period
Romans Create a Republic
Rome was founded by the Latin people. They founded Rome on a river in the center of Italy, which gave them control by putting them in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea. Though their location gave them great control they were not the only group of people that lived in Italy. The land was also inhabited by the Greeks, in the south, and the Etruscan, in the north. The Romans borrowed idea from both cultures while coming into their own.
Rome has not always been the republic we think. Rome use to be ruled by an Etruscan king, and grew into an extravagant city. In 509 B.C. Rome overthrew their king, and is declared a republic, swearing rome would never have a king again. This is the first time we truly see people voting to choose their leaders. Much like the present, two groups struggled for power in their new republic – the wealthy nobles and the common people. The common people eventually prevailed gaining more rights. Their original laws and regulations were called the Twelve Tables,and their protected all the people.
From 264 to 146 B.C. Rome and Carthage fought three bitter wars. Rome gained Sicily as the spoils of the first war. The second war, Carthage dealt great damage to Italy. Finally, in the third war, Rome defeated Carthage once again completely destroying the city. In decades to come Rome also conquered Greece, Macedonia, Spain, and parts of modern day Turkey, allowing them to control the Mediterranean Sea.
The Roman Empire Brings Change
Rome’s victories brought conflict between rich and poor, which led to Rome erupting in civil war. Amidst all the conflict Julius Caesar tried to take over with the help of Cassius and Pompey. These three men led Rome for the next ten years. With all the fame and glory Caesar was receiving, Pompey became fearful of Caesar. The two fought another civil war that lasted several years. After he won, Caesar took charge of the government. Though his actions gained popularity they raised mistrust in members of the Senate, and they later murdered him. This led to another civil war where Augustus took power, and ruled the entire empire. For the next 200 years the Roman Empire would become a great power, even though they had some not so efficient rulers. The empire stretched around the Mediterranean, from modern Syria to Turkey, west and north to England and Germany. Trade and farming were now extremely important to the empire. The quality of life you lived was directly affected by your social position. One third of the empire’s population were slaves. Adult women in Rome enjoyed more rights than most citizens.
The Rise of Christianity
Romans had a major impact on Christianity. One groups land that was taken was the Jews. Roman leaders, on occasion, would punish Christians when they refused to worship the Roman gods. They would be put to death or killed by wild animals in the arena. In A.D. 313, Constantine declared that Christians were no longer to be persecuted. Decades later, Christianity was declared the empire’s official religion.