Greek and Roman Theatre 500 BC-300 AD: History

Greek and Roman Theatre 500 BC-300 AD: History
Greek society-
This period in Greek history began with an unsuccessful attack by the Persians against the Athenians. Athens became powerful and was the birthplace of democracy, although slaves were held. The society was broken up between the free people and the slaves. At this same time Art literature, science and philosophy all flourished. Socrates was the philosopher of the day and tragedies were popular in theater. Society began to believe humans should live in moderation. It was believed humans, although free, would be punished by the gods for any undue pride.
Roman society-
In 215 BC the Romans began a campaign to conquer Greece. Politically they won, but personally the Romans preferred the Greek culture to theirs. Life in ancient Rome revolved around the city of Rome, the city of Rome was the largest megalopolis of that time, with a population that may well have exceeded one million people. The social structure of Rome revolved around the family. Slavery and slaves were a main part of the society. Slaves were mainly prisoners of war, but there were slave markets where people were bought and sold as slaves. At this time only non-slave men were allowed to vote. Women, children, and slaves were not allowed to vote.
In this time period there were many civil wars as well as many wars between Greeks, Romans, Persians, and many other empires which were trying to expand their empires. Around 40 BC Julius Caesar was the leader of the Roman Empire. Rome was growing and spreading through Europe at the time.
In the year 80 AD the Coliseum was completed after 8 years of building. The Roman culture was much more war-minded. If they wanted something they would take it by force. Their number one defense was their offense. This was also reflected in the people. They would go to the Coliseum to watch gladiators fight to the death or to watch them fight vicious animals like lions. A lot of their entertainment was based on fighting and strong physical competition.
Religion was a major part of Roman history. They believed all of their success was because of their good relations with the gods. During the Roman Republic their political leaders were often their religious leaders as well. They had augurs which would read the will of the gods by using dead animal organs. They would do many things based on what their augers read in the entrails. Their religion was based off of correct practice of prayer, sacrifices, and rituals. They would burn offerings to the gods, build temples and shrines to the gods, and they would pray to certain gods depending on their situation. If they were in need of a better harvest they would pray to Ceres, the goddess of grain. The Romans were all about order and religion was one order they were very serious about.
48BC the Library of Alexandria burned when Julius Caesar attacked Alexandria during Roman civil war
44BC Julius Caesar was assassinated and the Roman Republic ends.
31BC Octavian Caesar defeats Marc Antony and becomes the Emperor of Rome. Roman Empire born.
64AD Rome burns
68AD Rome experienced civil war
1-100AD Jesus Christ is crucified and Christianity begins its spread and begins to rival other major religions like the Roman worship of their gods.
http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/greecevsrome/Comparison_of_Ancient_Greece_and_Ancient_Rome.htm
http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/Culture/
http://www.csun.edu/~hcfll004/histlink.html
http://www.pbs.org/empires/romans/special/timeline_01.html
http://www.pbs.org/empires/romans/special/timeline_26.html
http://library.thinkquest.org/10805/timeline.html
http://parthia.com/parthia_timeline.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_ancient_Rome#The_arts

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